Gone are the days where unsightly cement rooftops are bland, flat and exuding heat.
Today, flush with plants and full of colour, these surfaces have evolved into living carpets of wild-life attracting plants, and can now provide, amongst other solutions, stormwater management, and a cooler environment in the vicinity of the building.
So much more than a trend!
Some captivating history…
Modern Iraq is home to ancient Babylon, where the first rooftop gardens were planted- famously known as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. These fabled gardens were built by the empires king at the time, Nebuchadnezzar II. Comprising layered terraces, this structure resembled a mountain, and incorporated into these layers was many interplantings of dense trees and flowers. These were the first known examples of vertical gardens…
The production of food was not a priority in the Fertile Crescent in 290 BC. This half-moon shaped region spanned areas such as the middle east and Africa, and included Iraq, Israel, Palestine, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Egypt. Individuals with great wealth would invest in beautiful, sculptural gardens- with the focus being far more than simply the plants. Views and water features were of great importance to those with the wealth to acquire these luxuries.
Fast-forward through time, and the Madison Square Gardens, designed in the 1890’s, took New York by storm, and the trend has been on the metaphorical rise ever since, with a massive resurgence in the last two decades. These less superfluous designs were modelled with intent- to protect roof water damage, and to stabilise fluctuating temperatures. The ability of roof gardens to prevent flash flooding has become one of the more common benefits.
Such a great idea for your own space:
Whether you live in a modern high-rise apartment, or have a single level home in a suburb, the possibilities of rooftop gardens have no ceiling. The choices are endless – what matters is what the purpose of your rooftop garden will be.
Rooftop vegetable gardens:
Choose from constructed raised beds, or planting in containers. Hardy terracotta pots will go a long way to house your plants and endure temperature change, but they draw water from your plants quickly and will need to be topped up with water retention mediums frequently, especially if the rooftop is in full sun (as apposed to shade from a neighbouring building).
Plastic pots hold water longer, and ceramic pots are a happy in-between option. But bare in mind all plants, especially vegetables, need frequent watering, and this should be planned for.
Which vegetables, herbs and fruit can I plant?
The rule is that roots and fruits need full sun, and leaves want shade. So it follows that any fruit baring tree and fruit baring vegetable (growing above or below the soil) wants full sun. Leafy greens such as lettuces, most tender herbs, spinach and swiss chard are ideal candidates for shade. But on a rooftop garden, there is most likely going to be full, endless sun. So opt for vegetables and herbs and fruit trees that will prosper in these conditions.
Tomatoes and cucumbers as well as peppers do well in full sun. Trellising peas and beans, tall corn and rambling squashes want full sun. Carrots, radishes, beets, kohlrabi, fennel, potatoes, and onions need a minimum of half a day of sunlight to grow well.
A dining area nearer to the sky…
Deck the roofs with bluebells and holly! A trend that is becoming popular is that of converting a rooftop space to a fully kitted out dining area, complete with a braai facility, deck chairs or other seating arrangements, complete with carpets and walls of plants.
If this is your idea of heaven, be sure to have your plant list comprise of waterwise plants, sun loving trees, succulents and hardy grasses, as these will serve you best in the harsh sunshine that these plants are likely to endure.
Plants we love for this include:
- Aptenia cordifolia
- Dietes grandiflora ‘Iris’
- Tulbaghia violacea or ‘Wild Garlic’
- Agapanthus praecox
- Plectranthus neochilus
- Carpobrotus edulis ‘Vygie’
- Aloe marlotii ‘Mountain Aloe’, and Aloe Ferox
- Dymondia margaretae – a hardy flowering grassy groundcover
- Asparagus densiflorus ‘Foxtail Fern’
- Sansevieria hyacinthoides, S. aethiopica, and S. pearsonii.
- Drimiopsis maculata ‘Leopard Lily’
- Chlorophytum comosum or ‘Hen and Chicken’
Many roofs are covered with grass and groundcovers which match the surrounding ground-level plants. This, in an effort to have the roof blend in with the structures natural surroundings. This is evidenced in many current gardening TV shows and popular culture films (think of the Lord of the rings saga with the Hobbit houses in the Shire, covered in grass).
A haven for pollinators:
Follow suit from Industry pioneers and create rooftop gardens entirely centred around attracting beneficial insects. Click |HERE| to see a fascinating example of bus shelter roofs being converted into mini gardens purely for bumblebees.
Click |HERE| for our blog dedicated to attracting pollinators to your garden and why they are so important.
A Xeriscape heaven:
Not every garden needs to be lush with green vegetation – a xeriscape garden is a drought resistant option utilising hardy succulents, cacti and rock. It essentially reduces the need for irrigation, which is a phenomenal prospect considering our changing climate and the need to adapt to drier planting options.
Click|HERE| to read all about Succulents for full sun; the types of plants you will need to be using to create a rock-and-cactus feel. Incorporate tall cacti in large pots, smaller pots filled to the brim with hardy succulents, and beds of coarse rock, to really encapsulate a Xeriscape look.
Email us at firstname.lastname@example.org if you would like us to feature your non-traditional garden as a Guest Gardener, and check out our previous Guest Gardeners |HERE| and our other Urban Greenies blogs |HERE|